Identification and analysis of genes and pseudogenes within duplicated regions in the human and mouse genomes.
The identification and classification of genes and pseudogenes in duplicated regions still constitutes a challenge for standard automated genome annotation procedures. Using an integrated homology and orthology analysis independent of current gene annotation, we have identified 9,484 and 9,017 gene duplicates in human and mouse, respectively. On the basis of the integrity of their coding regions, we have classified them into functional and inactive duplicates, allowing us to define the first consistent and comprehensive collection of 1,811 human and 1,581 mouse unprocessed pseudogenes. Furthermore, of the total of 14,172 human and mouse duplicates predicted to be functional genes, as many as 420 are not included in current reference gene databases and therefore correspond to likely novel mammalian genes. Some of these correspond to partial duplicates with less than half of the length of the original source genes, yet they are conserved and syntenic among different mammalian lineages. The genes and unprocessed pseudogenes obtained here will enable further studies on the mechanisms involved in gene duplication as well as of the fate of duplicated genes.