High-resolution transcription atlas of the mitotic cell cycle in budding yeast.
Granovskaia MV, Jensen LJ
, Ritchie ME, Toedling J, Ning Y, Bork P
, Huber W, Steinmetz LM
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extensive transcription of non-coding RNAs has been detected in eukaryotic genomes and is thought to constitute an additional layer in the regulation of gene expression. Despite this role, their transcription through the cell cycle has not been studied; genome-wide approaches have only focused on protein-coding genes. To explore the complex transcriptome architecture underlying the budding yeast cell cycle, we used 8 bp tiling arrays to generate a 5 minute-resolution, strand-specific expression atlas of the whole genome. RESULTS: We discovered 523 antisense transcripts, of which 80 cycle or are located opposite periodically expressed mRNAs, 135 unannotated intergenic non-coding RNAs, of which 11 cycle, and 109 cell-cycle-regulated protein-coding genes that had not previously been shown to cycle. We detected periodic expression coupling of sense and antisense transcript pairs, including antisense transcripts opposite of key cell-cycle regulators, like FAR1 and TAF2. CONCLUSIONS: Our dataset presents the most comprehensive resource to date on gene expression during the budding yeast cell cycle, revealing both protein-coding and non-coding RNA periodicity of expression and the first that profiles non-annotated RNAs. It enables hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies concerning the functions of non-coding RNAs.