Evolution and regulation of cellular periodic processes: a role for paralogues.
Several cyclic processes take place within a single organism. For example, the cell cycle is coordinated with the 24 h diurnal rhythm in animals and plants, and with the 40 min ultradian rhythm in budding yeast. To examine the evolution of periodic gene expression during these processes, we performed the first systematic comparison in three organisms (Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by using public microarray data. We observed that although diurnal-regulated and ultradian-regulated genes are not generally cell-cycle-regulated, they tend to have cell-cycle-regulated paralogues. Thus, diverged temporal expression of paralogues seems to facilitate cellular orchestration under different periodic stimuli. Lineage-specific functional repertoires of periodic-associated paralogues imply that this mode of regulation might have evolved independently in several organisms.